For several centuries, people use rough oil in their mundane life. It is used in signifier of gasolene, Diesel fuel, or different industrial lubricators. From oil, it is able to make besides heat or electricity. For a long clip, the most seeable merchandises of petroleum oil used every twenty-four hours are fuels for autos. As the figure of people on Earth is increasing, more autos are used, more electricity must be produced, more heat must be generated. All these facts show how people are dependent on oil and its merchandises. As Miller explains in the book Living in the environment, 82 % of the universe used energy in 2004 came from unrenewable resources. 33 % of it came from oil ( Miller, 2007 ) . It is true that the oil militias are still sufficient. On the other manus, it is of import to understand that the ingestion of oil is increasing each twelvemonth and oil, as the unrenewable resource, will be one twenty-four hours wholly depleted. Therefore, today it is of import to seek for other options. Wind, Sun, and H2O can be considered the new energy beginnings, which can diminish the dependance on oil and other unrenewable resources.
Wind energy is considered one of the cleanest and the longest used energy in universe. The primary signifiers of use of air current energy can be found in early history. As the web page Alterenery.org explicates, `` The first known usage was in 5000 BC when people used canvass to voyage the Nile River. Persians had already been utilizing windmills for 400 old ages by 900 AD in order to pump H2O and swot grain. Windmills may hold even been developed in China before 1 Ad '' ( Alterenergy, n.d. ) . Besides in many European states, for illustration in Slovakia, air current Millss had been used for different intent like chattering the flour. Today, air current energy has gained first topographic point in many European provinces. Harmonizing the information of European air current energy association, Germany is on the top of list of states which used air current energy at most. Germany reported 28777MW in the terminal of twelvemonth 2009. The 2nd topographic point belongs to Spain with 19149MW. Merely to compare, Slovakia reached merely 3MW in the terminal of twelvemonth 2009. This figure is really low. In twelvemonth 2008, Austria had installed new 14MW of air current power which helped it to make 995MW in the terminal of twelvemonth 2009 ( EWEA, 2010a ) . As the beginning continues, aˆzA sum of 19,651 MW of new power capacity was constructed in the EU last twelvemonth [ 2008 ] . Out of this, 8,484 MW ( 43 % ) was wind power ; 6,932 MW ( 35 % ) gas ; 2,495 MW ( 13 % ) oil ; 762 ( 4 % ) MW coal and 473 ( 2 % ) MW hydro power capacity '' ( EWEA, 2009b ) . Detailed information about air current energy for the old ages 2000 to 2008 is posted in Appendix A.
As it was already mentioned, there several tools for coevals the electricity from air current energy. The most seeable are windmills, like those in Austria. There is besides aA new device called Magenn power air rotor system ( MARS ) . As the web page of alternate energy beginnings explains, this device is filled by He and rotates in horizontal degree. As the beginning continues, the He inside the device keeps MARS high about the land. This distance can be maximal 1000ft. The web page besides explains that thanks to Magnus consequence, MARS can remain at its topographic point. The electricity is produced when the air current goes throughout the particular unit in MARS, which starts to whirl. Then, thanks to a overseas telegram, the electricity is transited into aA transformer located on land ( AES, n.d.a ) . For better visual image of this drifting air turbine, see image 2, 3, 4, and 5 in Appendix A. As it is seeable from the images, this Magenn power air rotor system can be located practically anyplace. It can be used on little islands, where the conveyance of other sort of electricity is impossible or excessively dearly-won. This system can be applied besides in polar countries, where people have to utilize diesel generators. But this is non the lone advantage. As the AES explains, these turbines are non so dearly-won, are friendly to environment, and are more efficient than other systems. Ability of the MARS to run on higher velocity of air current compared to other air current turbines is the following difference advantage mentioned on the web page of AES. Another advantage is connected with the tallness in which this system operates. This system is non every bit seeable as classical air current turbines. Therefore, as AES explains, ocular and noise impacts on land are reduced. Mobility of this system can be considered another advantage. As AES expounds, in instance of some catastrophe, the system can be easy abjuring. Therefore, the system will non be damaged ( AES, n.d.c ) . But the best thing on this air current energy is that it does non hold negative impact on environment as oil or other beginnings of energy that pollute the Earth. All the mentioned facts and advantages of air current energy show that this beginning of energy can vie with oil or other unrenewable resources. Wind energy can be considered the replacement of rough oil or other unrenewable resources in field of bring forthing electricity.
Solar energy is considered for a long clip cleanest a cheapest beginning of energy. Harmonizing to Solar energy industries association, the history of solar panels has started in 1820 when Henri Becquerel noticed so called photovoltaic consequence. First photovoltaic solar contraption bring forthing convenient sum of electricity was created in 1954 ( SEIA, n.d. ) . Solar energy is practically unlimited because of life rhythm of the Sun. As the web page solarviews.com explains, Sun has still sufficient sum of fuel, dwelling of H and He, for about following five billion old ages ( Solarviews, n.d. ) . Energy from Sun comes on Earth in signifier of visible radiation and heat. Both of them are created during thermonuclear mergers in a nucleus of Sun. Radioactive Sun air current is a secondary merchandise of this merger. Earth is, fortuitously, protected from this radioactive air current thanks to magnetosphere, which works like a shelter. For better imaginativeness, see picture 1 in Appendix B. In country of poles, this solar air current is seeable as a phenomenon called aurora borealis. Use of solar energy is really popular for several old ages. Besides tonss of people have started to put in solar panels on their houses. In the last old ages, photovoltaic systems started to hold taking place in this industry. As a web page toolbase.org explains, `` Photovoltaic systems use solar electric panels to straight change over the Sun 's energy into electricity '' ( Toolbase, n.d. ) . As the beginning continues, there are different sizes of the photovoltaic device. As it is written on the mentioned web page, there exist two types of photovoltaic panels: stiff and flexible. Harmonizing to the beginning, `` stiff PV [ photovoltaic system ] faculties typically have a glass screen while the flexible faculties have a really lasting movie screen. Both types of PV faculty building have been strictly tested to last storm and hail harm and are immune to debasement from ultra-violet beams '' ( Toolbase, n.d. ) . As the research is in advancement, new possibilities are invented. Merely recently, as it was published on web page sciencedaily.com, scientists form the Freiburg Materials Research Center and Department of Microsystems Engineering invented new intercrossed solar cell that will increase the efficiency of solar cells. As the mentioned web page explains, `` photoactive bed of intercrossed solar cells consists of a mixture of inorganic nanoparticles and an organic polymer '' ( Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, 2010 ) . As the beginning continues, `` it is theoretically possible to use the method developed by the research workers to many nanoparticles, [ so ] this discovery opens up new potency for increasing the efficiency of this type of solar cell even further '' ( Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, 2010 ) . For elaborate position of this new engineering, see image 2 and 3 in Appendix B. These solar systems have batch of advantages. The biggest advantage is that it does non harm environment because it is clear manner of production of electricity. As it was mentioned in the beginning of the paragraph, solar energy is unlimited, which is the following advantage of this system. As the web page of AES explains, this system `` works best in the sunniest, frequently the poorest, parts of the universe '' ( AES, n.d.d ) . This can guarantee these states independency in a field of demand for electricity. As the beginning continues, solar energy is safe and flexible ( AES, n.d.d ) . Solar energy can besides assist to bring forth heat or warm up the H2O needed for families or houses. This vision is portion of ecohouses. The mentioned facts confirm that solar energy has great possible and future, and for certain, it will assist to cut down humans' dependance on oil in field of bring forthing electricity and heat.
Water energy is besides considered one of the hereafter energy beginnings because of its advantages. Water has large power, particularly its flow. This fact is a basic premise for utilizing H2O in hydro power workss. As the web page U.S. geological study explains, `` hydroelectric works uses falling H2O to turn the turbine '' ( USGS, n.d. ) . As the beginning continues, `` a hydraulic turbine converts the energy of fluxing H2O into mechanical energy. A hydroelectric generator converts this mechanical energy into electricity '' ( USGS, n.d. ) . For more inside informations, see image 1 and 2 in Appendix C. This type of bring forthing electricity is really common in the universe. As web page of Slovenske elektrarne explains, besides Slovakia has several hydro power workss in H2O impound like Orava, Nosice, or Liptovska Mara, and pumped storage hydro workss located for illustration in Liptovka Mara or A?ierny Vah ( Slovenske elektrarne, n.d. ) . Not merely the H2O in rivers but besides H2O in seas can be used for bring forthing electricity. In the instance of sea H2O, tidal power is utilised. Harmonizing to company Verdant power, `` free Flow Kinetic Hydropower System uses three-bladed, horizontal-axis turbines deployed underwater to bring forth clean renewable energy from tidal and river currents '' ( Verdant power, n.d. ) . As the beginning continues, it `` is installed to the full submerged and operates automatically and unseeable from shore. The system does non necessitate dikes or other major civil plant, and does non airt the natural flow of the H2O '' ( Verdant power, n.d. ) . For elaborate position, see image 3 and 4 in Appendix C. This tidal power is really utile, because, thanks to Moon and Sun, the H2O is moved without any human aid. This means that this system is non so dearly-won. As the AES explains, this system has more other advantages. The best is that this system is ecological and environmental friendly. As the beginning continues, this system is besides cheaper than some device utilizing tidal power built on seashore. The system is safe and can be placed practically anyplace under the H2O ( AES, n.d.e ) . The mentioned advantages show that H2O energy can efficaciously bring forth electricity. Therefore, it can assist to cut down the usage of petroleum oil and other unrenewable resource.
Although all the mentioned beginnings of energy seem great, all of them have some disadvantages. High initial costs are the common disadvantages for all of them. The 2nd disadvantages common for all the mentioned energy beginnings is non really high efficiency. These beginnings still can non bring forth the needful sum of electricity or heat that can be produce from oil or other unrenewable resources. It is true that these `` green '' beginnings of energies are non on the same degree as unrenewable resources, but as the development improve, besides these engineerings are improved. Therefore, the better efficiency of these alternate energy beginnings is merely a inquiry of clip. These new energy beginnings can assist to diminish the dependance on oil. In the hereafter, for certain they will be use as primary beginnings of energy.
In the hereafter, air current, Sun, and H2O energy can replace unrenewable resources for production of electricity. It is true that batch of scientific research is needed for bettering the systems, but there is large potency. It is merely up to the authoritiess to back up the research in a field of alternate beginnings of energy. In the hereafter, the puting money will convey cleaner environment and independency from unrenewable resources. It is a great vision, and it is merely up to human race how it will work with these new engineerings.